A Night Tour With Terry Part 3

Successive occurrence of Bose-Einstein condensation in rubidium. From left to right is shown the atomic distribution in the cloud just prior to condensation, at the start of condensation and after full condensation. High peaks correspond to a large number of atoms. Silhouettes of the expanding atom cloud were recorded 6 ms after switching off the confining forces of the atom trap. Image Credit: nobelprize.org

Good evening, young man. I hope you are continuing your quest for information about Black Holes. There has been quite a lot of work done since you last asked and I hope you have found what you have been looking for. There has also been some research into the possibility that Black Holes might not even exist and might possibly just be an illusion from something else that looks like what we might expect them to be. For example, comes an article from Cornell University on an alternative possibility:-

‘Gravitational Condensate Stars: An Alternative to Black Holes
Pawel O. Mazur, Emil Mottola
(Submitted on the 11th of Sep 2001 (v1), last revised 27th of Feb 2002
(this version, v5))

A new solution for the endpoint of gravitational collapse is proposed. By extending the concept of Bose-Einstein condensation to gravitational systems, a cold, compact object with an interior de Sitter condensate phase and an exterior Schwarzschild geometry of arbitrary total mass M is constructed. These are separated by a phase boundary with a small but finite thickness of fluid with eq. of state p=+ρ, replacing both the Schwarzschild and de Sitter classical horizons. The new solution has no singularities, no event horizons, and a global time. Its entropy is maximized under small fluctuations and is given by the standard hydrodynamic entropy of the thin shell, instead of the BekensteinHawking entropy. Unlike black holes, a collapsed star of this kind is thermodynamically stable and has no information paradox.’

Alternatively, if you might venture into the world of String Theory where every particle is seen as a minute vibrating string of various configurations that are seen as the various particles, then the picture changes considerably. Instead of a star collapsing into a singularity surrounded by an event horizon, it becomes a tangled ‘ball of strings’ with a ‘fuzzy’ surface so anything falling onto one might find their subatomic structure combining with the other strings and become blended in perhaps. This of course hasn’t been proven in any way yet.

Alternatively, the Black Hole singularity might actually be a ‘Wormhole’ that might possibly connect to another part of the universe or if the mathematics of String Theory is correct that postulates alternate universes then the singularity might just connect to another universe entirely. There are multiple theories on possible configurations of alternate universes which could cause problems with navigation if ever it was possible to use one to go elsewhere and then want to return home. Again unproven.

It looks like there is a lot to be learned yet and even the gravitational waves that have been detected so far might possibly have been caused by a collision of spinning Wormholes rather than spinning Black Holes although existing instrumentation is not yet sufficiently sensitive to detect any difference in the echo generated in their final seconds of the collision. Scientists are working on improving the sensitivity of their instrumentation ready for the next event.

So keep at it young man, keep on with your research and studies and the mystery of the ‘Black Hole’ will surely be solved perhaps even by yourself.